Anthony D'Amato



Articles, chapters, essays, and other writings arranged in reverse chronological order. For books, click here.

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Ma'at, Goddess of Justice
Ma'at was the ancient Egyptian goddess justice. Her name implies law and order. She is depicted here as a tall woman wearing a feather upon her head. At the Judgment the dead person's heart was weighed against her feather. (Drawings by Brian D'Amato)


New Approaches to Customary International Law, 2011

Power, Law, Actors, and the View from New Haven, 2010 SSRN Link

The Coerciveness of International Law , 2010 pdf

A Few Steps toward an Explanatory Theory of International Law (2010) Word

Softness in International Law, EJIL 2009 Word

A Proposal for Breaking the Israel-Palestine Deadlock, Jurist 10/28/09

Customary International Law video, 2009/Realplayer

Human Rights and Enforcement video, 2009/Realplayer

The Sources of International Law video, 2009/Realplayer

Hamas, the Gaza War, and Accountability Under International Law, Jurist, 6-15-09

The Two Koreas: The Armistice and the Boundary, 6/1/09

National Prosecutions for International Crimes, In International Criminal Law, 2008

Obama Has Duty to Go after War Criminals, 12/3/08 Word

Are We Forgetting the Kurds? 8/4/08 Word

Why is International Law Binding? 2008 Word

International Soft Law, Hard Law, and Coherence, 2008 Word

International Law as a Unitary System, 2008 Word

Independence for Kosovo? Jurist 6/16/07 Bepress link Word

International Law from a Machiavellian Perspective, in Clinton, Realist Tradition (2007) Word

Kosovo: The UN Plans a Human Rights Disaster, Jurist 3/27/07; also in 17 no. 2, Survey of East European Law, 1-3 (2007) Word

True Confessions? The Amazing Tale of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Jurist 3/16/07 Word

Defenses to War Crimes : A Conceptual Overview, 2/07 (SSRN) Word

International Humanitarian Law: Prospects, Preface (2006)

On the Legitimacy of International Institutions, 12/06, SSRN Word

Israel's Borders under International Law, 12/06, SSRN Word

Bolton in Sheep's Clothing, Jurist 11/20/06 Word

Pyongyang and Proliferation: The UN North Korea Resolution, Jurist 10/17/06 Word

The UN Mideast Ceasefire Resolution Paragraph-by-Paragraph , Jurist 8/13/06 Word

Israel's new ground offensive and the UN peacekeeping plan, Jurist 8/9/06 Word

A proposed UN resolution on the Middle East, Jurist 8/7/06 Bepress link Word

The Draft UN Middle East Ceasefire Resolution , Jurist 8/6/06 Word

Qana, War Crimes and the Mideast Conflict, Jurist, 7/31/06 Word

War Crimes and the Mideast Conflict, Jurist, 7/24/06 Word

International Law Aspects of the Mideast 'War', Jurist, 7/18/06 Word

The Need for a Theory of International Law, SSRN, 4/5/06 Word

Using Nuclear Weapons against Iran? Jurist Hotline, 2/4/06 Bepress link

International Law as an Autopoietic System, in Developments of International Law in Treaty Making (2007)

The West Bank Wall: Part I: Jurisdiction; Part 2: Merits in Jurist, 2-24-04 & 3-2-04

Why It's Not Wise to Assassinate bin Laden, Chicago Tribune, Oct. 28 (2001)

Observations on the Forthcoming Milosevic Trial (2001)

International Law and Regulation of the Internet, 89 Ky LJl 575-579 (2001) Word

International Law, Cybernetics, and Cyberspace, in Computer Network Attack and International Law, 2002

On Genocide, In  International Law across the Spectrum of Conflict, 2000 Word

Defending a Person Charged with Genocide, 1 Chicago Jl of International Law 459-469 (2000) Word

A Brief Review of the Indictment against Milosevic and Others of 27 May 1999 33 (10) United Nations Law Reports 133-136 (June 1999) Word

International Law and Kosovo, 33 United Nations Law Reports 112-114 (1999). Word

Globalizing Adoption: Linking Children and Adoptive Parents, 116 Christian Century 668-669 (1999)

Megatrends in the Use of Force, in The Law of Armed Conflict: Into the Next Millenium (1998) Word

Customary International Law: A Reformulation, 4 International Legal Theory 1-6 (1998)

Law and War: A Doctrine of Deterrence, 35 UN Chronicle 52-53 (1998)

Cross-Country Adoption: A Call to Action, 73 Notre Dame LRev 1239 (1998) Word

"Genocide": Contribution to a panel discussion, with Richard Goldstone, Michael Scharf, and Ed Vulliamy (Accounting for Atrocities Conference, Oct. 1998)/Adobefiles/A90n.pdf

Strong Opinions on Human Rights, Chapter 10 in International Law Studies (1997)

Purposeful Ambiguity as International Legal Strategy: The Two China Problem, in  Jerzy Makarczyk (ed.) Theory of International Law at the Threshold of the 21st Century 109-121 (1996). Word

The Injustice of Dynamic Statutory Interpretation, 64 University of Cincinnati LRev 911-935 (1996) Word

Human Rights as Part of Customary International Law: A Plea for Change of Paradigms, 25 Georgia Jl of International and Comparative Law 47-98 (1995/96) Word

Israel's Air Strike against the Osiraq Reactor: A Retrospective, 10 Temple International and Comparative LJl 259-264 (1996) Word

World Conferences and the Cheapening of International Norms, St. Louis-Warsaw Transatlantic LJl 9 (1995) Word

The Path of International Law, 1 Jl of International Legal Studies 1 (1995) Word

The Moral and Legal Basis for Sanctions, 19 Fletcher Forum 19 (1995). Word

Old Approaches to International Law, 65 Harvard International LJl 509 (1995) Word

Peace vs. Accountability in Bosnia, 88 AJIL 500 (1994) Word doc Bepress link

Whales: Their Emerging Right to Life (with Sudhir K. Chopra), 85 AJIL 21 (1991) Word

It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's Jus Cogens! 6 Connecticut Jl of International Law 1 (1991) Word

Torture as Raison D'État, 10 Criminal Justice Ethics 40 (1991)

Do We Owe a Duty to Future Generations to Preserve the Global Environment? 84 AJIL 190 (1990) Word

The Invasion of Panama was a Lawful Response to Tyranny, 84 AJIL 516 (1990) Word

The Imposition of Attorney Sanctions for Claims Arising from the U.S. Air Raid on Libya, 84 AJIL 705 (1990) Word

International Law in the Public Forum: The New York Times and the Libyan Chemical Weapons Plant, 83 AJIL 527 (1989) Word

The Relation of the Individual to the State in the Era of Human Rights, 24 Texas Jl of International Law 1 (1989) Word

The Theory of Customary International Law, 82 ASIL Proc. 242 (1988) Word

The Alien Tort Statute and the Founding of the Constitution, 82 AJIL 62 (1988) Word

State Responsibility for the Exportation of Nuclear Power Technology (with Kirsten Engel), 74 Virginia LRev 1011 (1988) Word

The Relation of the Individual to the State in the Era of Human Rights, in US Courts & Human Rights (1987)

United States Experience at the International Court of Justice, in The International Court of Justice at a Crossroads (1987)

Trashing Customary International Law, 81 AJIL 101 (1987) Word

The President and International Law: A Missing Dimension, 81 AJIL 375 (1987) Word

Superior Orders vs. Command Responsibility, 80 AJIL 604 (1986)

The World Court, 80 ASIL Proc. 214 (1986) Word

The Authority of the United States Executive to Interpret, Articulate or Violate the Norms of International Law, 80 ASIL Proceedings 297 (1986) Word

Address on Terrorism and International Law, 8 Whittier LRev 789 (1986)

The United States Should Accept, by a New Declaration, the General Compulsory Jurisdiction of the World Court, 80 AJIL 331 (1986) Word

Sorting Out the World Court's Role in Compulsory Jurisdiction, in The US and the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the ICJ (1986)

The Law-Generating Mechanisms of the Law of the Sea Conference & Convention, in Consensus & Confrontation: US & LOS Convention (1985)

Modifying U.S. Acceptance of the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the World Court, 79 AJIL 385 (1985) Word

Should the United States Reconsider Its Acceptance of World Court Jurisdiction? 79 ASIL Proceedings 95 (1985) Word

Judge Bork's Concept of the Law of Nations is Seriously Mistaken, 79 AJIL 92 (1985) together with Professor Rubin's Reply Does Not Live Up to Its Title, 79 AJIL 112 (1985) Word

Is International Law Really "Law"? 79 Northwestern LRev 1293 (1985) Word

Nicaragua  and International Law: The "Academic" and the "Real", 79 AJIL 657 (1985) Word

The Enforcement of Norms and Rules with Respect to Nonparties, in Consensus and Confrontation: US & LOS Convention (1985)

The Purposive Dimension of International Law, 9 Brooklyn Jl of International Law 311 (1983) Word

An Alternative to the Law of the Sea Convention, 77 AJIL 281 (1983) Word

Israel's Air Strike upon the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor, 77 AJIL 584 (1983) Word

Israel and Palestine: Assault on the Law of Nations, 91 Yale LJ 1726 (1982) Word

The Concept of Human Rights in International Law, 82 Columbia LRev 1110 (1982) Word

What "Counts" as Law? in Law-making in the Global Community (1982) Word

Professor Nagel's Reflections on Cardozo, 2 Cardozo LRev 589 (1981)

Are Human Rights Good for International Business? 1 NW Jl of International Law and Business 22 (1979) Word

International Law and Rawls' Theory of Justice, 5 Denver Jl of International Law 525 (1975) Word

The Relevance of Machiavelli to Contemporary World Politics, Chapter 9 in Parel, ed., The Political Calculus (1972)

Written Statement of the International League for the Rights of Man Filed with the International Court of Justice in the Namibia Question (with Arthur Rovine), 4 NYU Jl of International Law & Politics 335 (1971)

The Authoritativeness of Custom in International Law, 53 Rivista di Diritto Internazionale 491 (1970)

Manifest Intent and the Generation by Treaty of Customary Rules of International Law, 64 AJIL 892 (1970) Word

On Consensus, 8 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 104 (1970)

Against the Crime of Silence; On Genocide, 57 California LRev 1033 (1969)

War Crimes and Vietnam: The "Nuremberg Defense" and the Military Service Resister, 57 California LRev 1055 (1969) Word

Consent, Estoppel, and Reasonableness: Three Challenges to Universal International Law, 10 Va. Jl of International Law 1 (1969) Word

The Concept of Special Custom in International Law, 63 AJIL 211 (1969) Word

Psychological Constructs in Foreign Policy Prediction, 11 Jl of Conflict Resolution 294 (1967) Word

Legal and Political Strategies of the South West Africa Litigation, 4 Law in Transition 8 (1967)

Legal Aspects of the French Nuclear Tests, 61 AJIL 66 (1967) Word

The Inductive Approach Revisited, 6 The Indian Jl of International Law 509 (1966) Word

The Bantustan Proposals for South-West Africa, 4 The Jl of Modern African Studies 177 (1966)

Apartheid in South West Africa: Five Claims of Equality, 1 Portia LJl 59 (1966)

The Neo-Positivist Concept of International Law, 59 AJIL 321(1965) Word

Treaties as a Source of General Rules of International Law, 3 (no.2) Harvard International LJl 1 (1962) Word


Legal Realism Explains Nothing (2009) Word)

The FBI's New Guidelines, Jurist 10/7/08 Word

A New (and Better) Interpretation of Holmes's Prediction Theory of Law, 2008, SSRN Link Word

Contested Morality: Judge Posner on Infanticide, Slavery, Suttee, Female Genital Mutilation, and the Holocaust, 2008, SSRN Link Word

Natural Law - A Libertarian View, 2008 Word

Waterboarding: The Key Question for Mukasey, Jurist 10/19/07 Word

A Quick Primer on Logic and Rationality, SSRN, 6/2/06 Word

Porn Up, Rape Down, SSRN, 6/23/06 Word

Why Be Fair When You Can Have Welfare? 2006 Word

The Effect of Legal Theories on Judicial Decisions, 74 Chicago-Kent LRev 517-527 (1999) Word

Indeterminacy, in  The Philosophy of Law: An Encyclopedia, C. B. Gray, ed. pp. 398-400

Justice, in  The Philosophy of Law: An Encyclopedia, C. B. Gray, ed. pp. 465-467

Legal and Moral Dimensions of Churchill's Failure to Warn, 20 Cardozo LRev 561-567 (1998) Word

Post-Revolutionary Law and Economics, 20 Hofstra LRev 757 (1992) Word

On the Connection between Law and Justice, 26 U.C. Davis LRev 527 (1993) Word

Disobbedienza civile, Enciclopedia della Scienze Sociali, vol. 3, p.169 (1993)

Counterintuitive Consequences of "Plain Meaning", 33 Arizona LRev 529 (1991) Word

Harmful Speech and the Culture of Indeterminacy, 32 Wm and Mary LRev 329 (1991) Word

Aspects of Deconstruction: The Failure of the Word "Bird", 84 Northwestern LRev 536 (1990) Word

Aspects of Deconstruction: Refuting Indeterminacy with One Bold Thought, 85 Northwestern LRev 113 (1990) Word

Aspects of Deconstruction: The "Easy Case" of the Under-aged President, 84 Northwestern LRev 250 (1990) Word

Aspects of Deconstruction: Thought Control in Xanadu, 84 Northwestern LRev 1086 (1990) Word

The Ultimate Injustice: When A Court Misstates the Facts, 11 Cardozo LRev 1313 (1990) Word

A New Political Truth: Exposure to Sexually Violent Materials Causes Sexual Violence, 31 William and Mary LRev 575 (1990) Word

Pragmatic Indeterminacy, 85 Northwestern LRev 148 (1990) Word

As Gregor Samsa Awoke One Morning from Uneasy Dreams He Found Himself Transformed into an Economic Analyst of Law, 83 Northwestern LRev 1012 (1989) together with Gregor Samsa Replies by undisclosed author Richard A. Posner Word

Self-Regulation of Judicial Misconduct Could be Mis-Regulation, 89 Michigan LRev 609 (1990) Word

Can Legislatures Constrain Judicial Interpretation of Statutes? 75 Virginia LRev 561 (1989) Word

Can Any Legal Theory Constrain Any Judicial Decision? 43 University of Miami LRev 513 (1989). Word

The Moral Dilemma of Positivism, 20 Valparaiso University LRev 43 (1985) Word

Whither Jurisprudence? 6 Cardozo LRev 971 (1985) Word

Is Equality A Totally Empty Idea? 81 Michigan L Rev 600 (1983) Word

Legal Uncertainty, 71 California LRev 1 (1983) Word

Three Models of Legal Ethics,761 St.Louis L. Rev. 27(1983) Word

Lon Fuller and Substantive Natural Law, 26 American Jl of Jurisprudence 202 (1981) Word

Ethics at the Edge of Life, 2 Cardozo LRev 655 (1981)

The Speluncean Explorers-Further Proceedings, 32 Stanford LRev 467 (1980) Word

Judicial Legislation, 1 Cardozo LRev 63 (1979) Word

Disqualification of Counsel: The Westinghouse Litigation (1979) Word

Comment: Professor Posner's Lecture on Privacy, 12 Georgia LRev 497 (1978)

The Limits of Legal Realism, 87 Yale LJl 468 (1978) Word

Can/Should Computers Replace Judges? 11 Georgia LRev 1277 (1977) Word

Obligation to Obey the Law: A Study of the Death of Socrates, 49 Southern California LRev 1079 (1976) Word

The "Bad Samaritan" Paradigm, 70 NU LRev 798 (1976 )Word

Elmer's Rule: A Jurisprudential Dialogue, 60 Iowa LRev 1129 (1975) Word

The Relation of Theories of Jurisprudence to International Politics and Law, 27 Washington and Lee LRev 257 (1970) Word

Towards a Reconciliation of Positivism and Naturalism: A Cybernetic Approach to a Problem of Jurisprudence 14 Western Ontario LRev 171 (1975)

The American Constitution and the Air War, in The Air War in Indochina ( 1972)

The Politics of Ecosuicide (1971)



The Interdisciplinary Turn in Legal Education, 12/06, SSRN Word

Rethinking Legal Education, 74 Marquette LRev 1 (1990)

International Law in the Curriculum, 2 Pace Yearbook of International Law 83 (1990)

The Decline and Fall of Law Teaching in the Age of Student Consumerism, 37 Jl of Legal Education 461 (1987)

Public International Law as a Career, 1 American University Jl of International Law and Policy 5 (1986)


Complaint in Rosen v. Japan, Sept. 4, 2001

Lead Counsel for Plaintiff, Serbian Orthodox Church v. William Jefferson Clinton, US Dist. Ct., N.D. Illinois, Eastern Div., 1999. (U.S. military operations in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)

Brief in Extradition Case, US v. Lindstrom

[ICTY v. Dr. Milan Kovacevic] Defending the Indefensible, by Tina Rosenberg, NYT Magazine, April 19, 1998

The Frolova Case, in Contemporary Issues in International Law: Essays in Honor of Louis B. Sohn (1984)

The Frolova Case: A Practitioner's View, 1 New York Law School Human Rights Annual 33 (1983) Word

Brief for Constitutional Lawyers' Committee on Undeclared War as Amicus Curiae, Massachusetts v. Laird, 17 Wayne LRev 67 (1971) Word

Massachusetts in the Federal Courts: The Constitutionality of the Vietnam War, 4 Jl of Law Reform 11 (1970) Word


Review of Human Rights of Women, ed. by Rebecca J. Cook, 89 AJIL 840 (1995) Word

Right v. Might: International Law and the Use of Force, 85 AJIL 201 (1991) Word

Correspondence and Reply: Michael Akehurst and Anthony D'Amato, 80 AJIL 147 (1986)

Response to W. Michael Reisman' Editorial "Has the International Court Exceeded its Jurisdiction", 80 AJIL 942 (1986)

Human Rights, European Politics, and the Helsinki Accord, 78 AJIL 960 (1984) Word

Rethinking the Sources of International Law, 78 AJIL 937 (1984) Word

The Practice of Japan in International Law, 1961-1970, 78 AJIL 733 (1984) Word

Essays on the Development of the International Legal Order, 76 AJIL 188 (1982) Word

International Law: Content and Function: A Review, 11 Jl of Conflict Resolution 504 (1967)

Shapiro: Law and Politics in the Supreme Court, 53 California LRev 713 (1965)

Review of Myres S. McDougal and Associates, Studies in World Public Order, 75 Harvard LRev 458 (1961) Word


The Contribution of the Infield Fly Rule to Western Civilization, 100 NWULR (2006) Bepress link Word

Words and Music, paper presented at Kaplan Center, March 6, 2000

Brave New Scholarship, 49 Jl of Legal Education 143-149 (1999)

Minutes of the Faculty Meeting, 359 BYU L Rev (1992) Word


Review of the ICJ Order of June 2, 1999 in the Illegality of Use of Force Case


Jacobson, Arthur J., Taking Responsibility: Law's Relation to Justice and D'Amato's Deconstructive Practice, 90 Northwestern University LRev 1755 (1996)

Onuf, Nicholas, Book Review: International Law and Political Reality: Collected Papers, Volume One. Jl International Legal Studies (Summer 1995)

Pannier, Russell, D'Amato, Kripke, And Legal Indeterminacy, 27 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 881 (2000)

Rosen, Andrew A., D'Amato's Equilibrium: Game Theory and a Re-Evaluation of the Duty to Prosecute under International Law, 37 NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 79 (2004)

Sacco, Joe, The War Crimes Trials, Details, Sept. 1998, p.260